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The Closing Argument for Soda Pop

The Closi
ng Argument for Soda Pop

Soft drinks Ingredients

Many of the soft drinks are similar, but reading the fine print, maybe the best place to begin. regarding their ingredients. There are many, that are categorized under flavors, therefore their Secret Formula, not being revealed. Most soft drinks have either a sugar, sweeteners (neotame, acesulfame, and sucralose), high fructose corn syrup, or Aspartame ( dietdrinks). Some soft drinks may include caffeine. Most drinks you will find Sodium Bensoate. Citric acid is found there along with Benzene, another ingredient often listed. Others ( orange) may contains glyceryl abietate, also known as “glycerol esters of wood rosin”, and brominated vegetable oil. The Colas one of the larger segments of the soft drinks, the cola nut is used as an active ingredient. The cola nut adds the alkaloids of caffeine and theobromine. Since soft drinks basic substance is water that is carbonated. This is, as we know it, carbonated water.

Soft drinks would not be without preservatives and colors. The preservatives such as, Sodium benzoate, is used widely along with Sodium Citrate, Potassium Sorbate and Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C). The Colors can not be left out such as caramel and the artificialcolors such as Red40 that are used to enhance soft drinks color appeal and taste.

The Hear say or It’s Said to Be Caffeine… is linked to anxiety and sleep disruption when consumed in excess.

The health effects of high-fructose corn syrup and artificial sweeteners remain controversial.

Sodium benzoate has been investigated as a possible cause of DNA damage and hyperactivity.

Benzene, is the amount of benzene in soft drinks is small enough that it is not unlikely to pose a health risk.

Aspartame, used in diet sodas, is a potent neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor.

Phosphoric acid, added to give soft drinks “bite,” is associated with calcium loss.

Citric acid often contains traces of MSG, a neurotoxin.

Artificial Flavors may also contain traces of MSG.

Water may contain high amounts of fluoride and other contaminants

Sodium citrate buffers the acids, so the pH stays low (acidic).

Potassium sorbate is added to inhibit yeasts and fungi.

Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is used as an anti-oxidant.

In Colas, the color comes from caramel coloring (burnt sugar).

Red 40 and other colors are used a health consideration.

They are used in fruit flavored drinks such as orange soda, glyceryl abietate, also known as “glycerol esters of wood rosin”, and brominated vegetable oil.

FACTS To THE CASE… Caffeine Caffeine,

a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, which temporarily wards off drowsiness and restoring alertness. By the way, caffeine is the world’s most widely consumed psychoactive substance. b Unlike many other psychoactive substances, Caffeine is legal. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lists caffeine as a “multiple purpose generally recognized as safe food substance”.

Caffeine being linked to sleep disorders and anxiety when used in excess will depend on usage, as the report below will indicate. Moderation is the key here. Ill effects such as abuse, intoxication, withdrawals, and effects on children.

For further reading

http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Caffeine-related-disorders.html. Retrieved 2009-08-03

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). American Psychiatric Association. ISBN 0-89042-062-9.

James, Jack E.; Stirling, Keyn P. (1983). “Caffeine: A Survey of Some of the Known and Suspected Deleterious Effects of Habitualal Use”. Addiction 78: 251–8. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1983.tb02509.x. PMID 6354232

High-fructose Corn Syrup The Sugar-sweetened beverages are the main source of added sugar and the leading source of calories in our diet. When added to drinks, all sweeteners — including natural ones like brown sugar, sugar in the raw, agave syrup and honey — contribute empty calories. Since 1980, calorie intake has increased by an average of 150 to 300 calories per day with about half of those calories coming from liquids — sugar-sweetened beverages in particular.

The American Heart Association recommends Americans limit their sugar intake to half of their discretionary calorie allowance — about 100 calories per day for women and 150 calories per day for men (or about five and nine teaspoons respectively). To put that in perspective, one 12-ounce can of Pepsi contains 150 calories and about eight teaspoons of added sugar.

But it’s worth noting, that the same amount of orange juice has 165 calories and more than eight teaspoons of sugar, that is in its natural form. If you’re looking to add vitamins and minerals, the OJ is the smarter choice, but if weight is is your goal, you should steer clear of both.

When it comes to energy, it’s unlikely that your body registers natural sugar any differently than table sugar or HFC.

Marion Nestle, NYU professor of nutrition and author of “Food Politics” and “What to Eat“, agrees that it’s a matter of too many calories, rather than one particular food. The public now puts HFCS in the same category as trans fats: poison (it’s not; it’s just sugars),” says Nestle. “Biochemically, it is about the same as table sugar (both have about the same amount of fructose and calories), but it [HFCS] is in everything and Americans eat a lot of it — nearly 60 pounds per capita in 2006, just a bit less than pounds of table sugar. HFCS is not a poison, but eating less of any kind of sugar is a good idea these days.”

The American Medical Association agrees. In 2008, the organization issued a statement maintaining that HFCS does not contribute more to obesity than other sweeteners.

CBS News Investigates HFCS Oct. 2008

Stanford Wellsphere HFCS Controversy Apr. 2009

“High Fructose Corn Syrup Health and Diet Facts”.

Sodium Benzoate

Sodium benzoate is a preservative. It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is used most prevalently in acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks, acid jams and fruit juices It can also be found in cough syrups like Robitussin.

It is also used in fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix, a powder that emits a whistling noise when compressed into a tube and ignited. The fuel is also one of the fastest burning rocket fuels and provides a lot of thrust and smoke. It does have its downsides: there is a high danger of explosion when the motor is pressed because of the fuel’s sensitivity to impact. That is why only professional pyrotechnicians should make it.

FDA, 2006. “Data on Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages, ” United States Food and Drug Administration.

Martin Hickman Caution: Some soft drinks may seriously harm your health The Independent on Sunday 27, May 2007

Martin Hickman E211 Revealed: Evidence highlights new fear over drinks additive

Benzene Benzene in

soft drinks is of some concern due to the carcinogenic nature of the benzene molecule. This contamination is a public health concern and has caused significant outcry among environmental and health advocates. The Benzene levels are regulated in drinking water nationally and internationally, and in bottled water in the United States, but only informally in soft drinks.

The benzene results from decarboxylation of the preservative benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), especially under heat and light.

The FDAemphasized that most beverages contain levels below 5 ppb and poses no risk to consumers. Furthermore, there are no standards for beverages beyond drinking and bottled water. A watchdog organization, the Environmental Working Group, had previously called on the FDA to release its results. The EWG also criticized the FDA for not acting on the Total Diet Study results showing the nearly 80% of the diet soft drinks exceeded the federal drinking water standards.

Further reading facts

Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). April 13, 2006, “FDA Statement: Benzene in Soft DrinksSurvey of benzene levels in soft drinks”

Elliott, Valerie, The Times, April 1, 2006, “Soft drinks pulled from shelves over cancer fear”

Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). April 13, 2006, “FDA Statement: Benzene in Soft Drinks”

Benzene in Soft Drinks and other Beverage Products

LIBBY QUAID Soft Drink Companies Settle Benzene Case, August 24, 2006Martin Hickman Coca-Cola to phase out use of controversial additive after DNA damage claim The Independent 25 May 2008


Aspartame is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages. It was first sold under the brand name NutraSweet. It has also has been sold under the brand name AminoSweet. The safety of aspartamehas been the subject of several political and medicalcontroversies, Congressionalal hearings and internethoaxes since its initialapproval for use in food products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1974.

A 2007 medicalreview on the subject concluded that “the weight of existing scientific evidence indicates that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a non-nutritive sweetener”. However, because its breakdown products include phenylalanine, aspartame must be avoided by people with the genetic condition phenylketonuria

Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J, et al. (2007). “Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies”. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 37 (8): 629–727. doi:10.1080/10408440701516184. PMID 17828671.

^David J. Ager, David P. Pantaleone, Scott A. Henderson, Alan R. Katritzky, Indra Prakash, D. Eric Walters (1998). “Commercial, Synthetic Non-nutritive Sweeteners”. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 37 (13-24): 1802–1817. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19980803)37:13/14<1802::AID-ANIE1802>3.0.CO;2-9.

Phosphoric acid Food-grade phosphoric acid (additive E338) is used to acidify foods and beverages such as various colas, but not without controversy regarding its health effects. It provides a tangy or sour taste and, being a mass-produced chemical, is available cheaply and in large quantities. The low cost and bulk availability, is unlike more expensive seasonings that give comparable flavors, such as citric acid which is obtainable from lemons and limes. However, most citric acid in the food industry is not extracted from citrus fruit, but fermented by Aspergillus niger mold from scrap molasses, waste starch hydrolysates and phosphoric acid.

Biological effects on bone calcium and kidney health Phosphoric acid, used in many soft drinks (primarily cola), has been linked to lower bone density in epidemiologicalal studies. For example, a study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry rather than a questionnaire about breakage, provides reasonable evidence to support the theory that drinking cola results in lower bone density. This study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Total phosphorus intake was not significantly higher in daily cola consumers than in non consumers; however, the calcium-to-phosphorus ratios were lower. The study also suggests that further research is needed to confirm the findings.

On the other hand, a study funded by Pepsi suggests that insufficient intake of phosphorus leads to lower bone density. The study does not examine the effect of phosphoric acid, which binds with magnesium and calcium in the digestive tract to form salts that are not absorbed, but rather studies general phosphorus intake.

However, a well-controlled clinical study by Heaney and Rafferty using calcium-balance methods found no impact of carbonated soft drinks containing phosphoric acid on calcium excretion.[4]The study compared the impact of water, milk, and various soft drinks (two withcaffeine and two without; two withphosphoric acid and two with citric acid) on the calcium balance of 20- to 40-year-old women who customarily consumed ~3 or more cups (680 mL) of a carbonated soft drink per day. Because studies have shown that the effect of caffeine is compensated for by reduced calcium losses later in the day, Heaney and Rafferty concluded that the neteffect of carbonated beverages—including those withcaffeine and phosphoric acid—is negligible, and that the skeletal effects of carbonated soft drink consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.

Katherine L Tucker, Kyoko Morita, Ning Qiao, Marian T Hannan, L Adrienne and B. Elmståhl(1998). “Increased Incidence of Fractures in Middle-aged and Elderly Men with Low Intakes of Phosphorus and Zinc”. Osteoporosis International 8 (4): 333–340. doi:10.1007/s001980050072. PMID 10024903.

R. P. Heaney and K. Rafferty (2001). “Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion”. Am J Clin Nutr 74 (3): 343–347. PMID 11522558.

M. J. Barger-Lux, R. P. HCupplesand Douglas P Kiel (2006). “Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study”. Am. J Clin. Nut. 84 (4): 936–42. PMID 17023723.

S. Elmståhl, B. Gullberg, L. Janzon, O. Johnell eaney and M. R. Stegman (1990). “Effects of moderate caffeine intake on the calcium economy of premenopausal women [published erratum appears in Am J Clin Nutr 1991 Jan;53(1):182]“. Am J Clin Nutr 52 (4): 722–725. PMID 2403065.

Tina M. Saldana, Olga Basso, Rebecca Darden, and Dale P. Sandler (2007). “Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease”. Epidemiology 18 (4): 501–6. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3180646338. PMID 17525693.

Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid and it is a natural preservative used to add an acidic, or sour taste to foods and soft drinks. Within the biochemistry realm, it is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, and therefore occurs in the metabolism of virtually all living things. It can also be used as an environmentally benign cleaning agent.

Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits, lemons and limes have particularly high concentrations of the acid. Citric acid can constitute as much as 8% of the dry weight of these fruits. However, most citric acid in the food industry is not extracted from citrus fruit, but fermented by Aspergillus niger mold from scrap molasses, waste starch hydrolysates and phosphoric acid.

Studies on production of citric acidby Aspergillus niger in solid … Sep 1, 2009 … Free Online Library: Studies on production of citric acidby Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation of peat mass.

www.thefreelibrary.com/Studies+on+production+of+citric+acid+by+ Aspergillus+niger+in+solid…-a0215925283

Artificial Flavors/ MSG.

Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate and MSG, is a sodium salt of glutamicacid, a naturally occurring non-essential amino acid. It is used as a food additive and is commonly marketed as a flavour enhancer. The names of monosodiumglutamate include Ajinomoto, Vetsin, Ac’cent and Tasting Powder. It was once made predominantly from wheat gluten, but is now mademostly from bacterial fermentation which is acceptable for coeliacs, following a gluten-free diet.

Although traditional East Asian cuisine had often used seaweedextract, which contains high concentrations of glutamic acid, it was not until 1907 that MSG was isolated by Kikunae Ikeda. MSG was subsequently patented by Ajinomoto Corporation of Japan in 1909. In its pure form, it appears as a white crystalline powder that, as a salt, dissociates into sodium cations and glutamate anions while dissolving (glutamate is the anionic form of glutamic acid).

There are health concerns about the use of monosodium glutamate in food, but few are scientifically supported.

The sodium salt of glutamic acid, monosodium glutamate (MSG), is a widely used additive in the food industry.

Further reading…

“http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/08/05/health/webmd/main4323568.shtml”. CBS News. Aug. 5, 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/08/05/health/webmd/main4323568.shtml. Retrieved 2010-11-10. “Studies haven’t found any regular pattern of symptoms that could be typical of a reaction to MSG

^ FUCHSIA DUNLOP (February 18, 2007). “China’s True Dash of Flavor”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/18/opinion/18dunlop.html. Retrieved 2010-11-10. “… reputable medical studies have shown that only a tiny proportion of people truly react to it, and then only when it is administered in large oral doses on an empty stomach.”


Carbonated water constitutes up to 94% of a soft drink. Carbon dioxide adds that special sparkle and bite to the beverage and also acts as a mild preservative. Carbon dioxide is an uniquely suitable gas for soft drinks because it is inert, non-toxic, and relatively inexpensive and easy to liquefy.

Purifing the water

The quality of water is crucial to the success of a soft drink. Impurities, such as suspended particles, organic matter, and bacteria, may degrade taste and color. They are generally removed through the traditional process of a series of coagulation, filtration, and chlorination. Coagulation involves mixing a gelatinous precipitate, or floc (ferric sulphate or aluminum sulphate), into the water. The flocabsorbs suspended particles, making them larger and more easily trapped by filters. During the process, alkalinity must be adjusted with an addition of lime to reach the desired pH level.

Filtering, sterilizing, and dechlorinating the water The water is poured through a sand filter to remove fine particles of floc. The water passes through a layer of sand and courser beds of gravel to capture the particles.

Sterilization is necessary to destroy bacteria and organic compounds that might spoil the water’s taste or color. The water is pumped into a storage tank and is dosed with a small amount of free chlorine. The chlorinated water remains in the storage tank for about two hours until the reaction is complete.

Next, an activated carbon filter dechlorinatesthe water and removes residual organic matter, much like the sand filter. A vacuum pump de-aerates the water before it passes into a dosing station.

Read more: How soft drink is made – production process, making, history, used, product, industry, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of soft drink, Quality Control, Recycling http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Soft-Drink.html#ixzz1EQSWdbDJ

Sodium citrate


Acid, flavoring, chelating agent: Ice cream, sherbet, fruit drink, candy, carbonated beverages, instant potatoes.

Flavoring agent

Citric acid is versatile, widely used, cheap, and safe. It is an important metabolite in virtually all living organisms and is especially abundant naturally in citrus fruits and berries. It is used as a strong acid, a tart flavoring, and an antioxidant. Sodium citrate, also safe, is a buffer that controls the acidity of gelatin desserts, jam, ice cream, candy, and other foods.

Monosodium citrate is used if a buffering effect is required or if citric acid is considered to be too aggressive for the formulation.

Potassium sorbate

Potassium sorbate is the potassium salt of sorbic acid. Its primary use is as a food preservative. Potassium sorbate is effective in a variety of applications including food, wine, and personal care products. Potassiim sorbate is produced by neutralizing potassium hydroxide with sorbic acid, an unsaturated carboxylic acid that occurs naturally in some berries. The colourless salt is very soluble in water (58.2% at 20 °C). Potassium sorbate is u

sed to inhibit molds and yeasts in many foods, such soft drinks and fruit drinks, and baked goods.It can also be found in the ingredients list of many dried fruit products. It is used in quantities at which there are no known adverse health effects, over short periods of time. Labeling of this preservative on ingredient statements reads as “potassium sorbate”.

Potassium sorbate at Sigma-Aldrich Nordic Food Additive Database Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Assessment Erich Lück, Martin Jager and Nico Raczek “Sorbic Acid” in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2000.doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_507 http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/40abcj15.htm

Ascorbic acid ASCORBIC ACID (Vitamin C) Antioxidant, nutrient, color stabilizer: Cereals, fruit drinks, cured meats.

Ascorbic acid—or vitamin C—helps maintain the red color of cured meat and prevents the formation of nitrosamines, which promote cancer (see SODIUM NITRITE). Vitamin C is also used to pump up the vitamin content of foods like “fruit” drinks and breakfast cereals. It also helps prevent loss of color and flavor in foods by reacting with unwanted oxygen. Though heroic amounts of ascorbic acid were recommended by Dr. Linus Pauling as a cure for common cold, subsequent research found only that it might slightly reduce the severity of colds

In Cola’s, Caramel color

Caramel coloring is made by heating a solution of various sugars, often together with ammonium compounds, acids, or alkalis. It is the most widely used (by weight) coloring added to foods and beverages, with hues ranging from tannish-yellow to black, depending on the concentration and the food. Caramel coloring may be used to simulate the appearance of cocoa in baked goods, make meats and gravies look more attractive, and darken beer. Caramel coloring, when produced with ammonia, contains a contaminant, 4-methylimidazole. (That chemical is also present in cigarette smoke.)

In 2007, a study by the U.S. National Toxicology Program found that that contaminant caused cancer in male and female mice and possibly in female rats. The amounts of 4-methylimidazole are so worrisome that the State of California has proposed that a warning notice be required on food and non-food products.

It would be worth avoiding colas and other beverages colored with caramel coloring, because the serving sizes—and amounts of 4-methylimidazole— are so large but the small portions of soy or other sauces that one might consume are less of a problem.

^ FAQ – What are the most common test methods for caramel color?, Sethness Caramel Color, http://www.sethness.com/dsp_faq.cfm#test, retrieved 2009-04-26

Red 40 Artificial Coloring: Soda pop,

The most widely used food dye. While this is one of the most-tested food dyes, the key mouse tests were flawed and inconclusive. An FDA review committee acknowledged problems, but said evidence of harm was not “consistent” or “substantial.” Red 40 can cause allergy-like reactions. Like other dyes, Red 40 is used mainly in junk foods. Glyceryl abi

etate, “glycerol esters of wood rosin” Glycerol ester of wood rosin, glyceryl abietate, or Ester gum is a food additive used as an emulsifier and stabiliser, to keep oils in suspension in water. It has E number E445. It is water-soluble and leaves the body through urine. Products with glycerol ester of wood rosin soft drinks lemonades (Country Time, Minute Maid, for example) Blood …

Read more: http://www.righthealth.com/topic/glyceryl_abietate/Reference#ixzz1ESvRQKCw

Brominated vegetable oil. Brominated vegetable oil (BVO) is vegetable oil that has had atoms of the element bromine bonded to it. Brominated vegetable oil is used as an emulsifier in citrus-flavored soft drinks to help natural fat-soluble citrus flavors stay suspended in the drink and to produce a cloudy appearance. BVO has been used by the soft drink industry since 1931.

The addition of bromine increases the density of the oil, and the amount of bromine is carefully controlled to achieve a density that is the same as the water in the drink. As a result, the BVO remains suspended in the water instead of forming separate layers.